February 7, 2006

Walerian Borowczyk, 1923 - 2006.

Walerian Borowczyk
Walerian Borowczyk, the renowned Polish animator and director of live-action erotic films steeped in the bizarre, has died of heart failure at the age of 82.


I found some of Boro's work a bit dry for my liking, but there is no denying that his was one of the most distinctive personalities to emerge from the world of Eurocult in its "Silver Age" (say, 1967-84). One of my favorite descriptions of the special flavor of his work can be found in Phil Hardy's Aurum/Overlook Film Encyclopedia: Horror. In an entry about the Jekyll picture (as Docteur Jekyll et les Femmes), the author writes: "Borowczyk's imagery, here fed by his fetishistic fascination with all things antiquarian, is often stunning and the film becomes a sort of still life in which familiar yet alien objects - an ancient dictaphone, a treadle sewing-machine, a book of remembrance - seem imbued with a secret significance all their own, and in which a glimpse of a whalebone corset or ruffled petticoat carries a heady whiff of eroticism."

Tim Lucas, Video WatchBlog.

The Animation World Network has an online exhibition with an essay, art gallery, filmography and two clips.

Writing in Senses of Cinema in 2001, Joe Ruffell argued the case that Borowczyk is underrated as a director of live action features.


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Posted by dwhudson at February 7, 2006 1:25 PM


Dave: You have fattened the slim bones of obituary with visuals; thanks!! I knew nothing about "Boro" and appreciate a glimpse at his posters and film. A pity the film samples are so small!

Posted by: Michael Guillen at February 7, 2006 3:51 PM

Time to search out a few films, then. You'll notice GC has a few; and Tim Lucas points to a few more resources, too.

Posted by: David Hudson at February 7, 2006 4:02 PM

No! This, along with the passing of Jan Lenica, Wojciech Has and Jaromil Jires a few years ago, is about as disappointing news as I can imagine. At least I was able to meet (and briefly speak with) Lenica...

Fortunately, there is a three film Borowczyk box-set due for release next month. What about all of the early works? Will they never surface?

Posted by: Jonathan Marlow at February 8, 2006 9:48 AM

Nico, from Cult Epics, writes:
"I have been working in the last 9 months with Walerian on a project entitled 7 FILMS BY WALERIAN BOROWCZYK, which is a retrospective of his award winning animation films, which will be released later on." They're also responsible for the aforementioned box, which will include LA BETE/THE BEAST, CEREMONIE D'AMOUR/LOVE RITES and GOTO, ISLE D'AMOUR/GOTO, ISLAND OF LOVE.

Posted by: Jonathan Marlow at February 8, 2006 2:00 PM

At least we'll have those. Thanks, Jonathan.

Posted by: David Hudson at February 8, 2006 2:17 PM

Yes, Jonathan, thanks for the heads-up. That will provide the chance to catch up with the rest of youse.

Posted by: Michael Guillen at February 9, 2006 12:01 PM

Thanks for posting this, Jonathan - I'll try to mention it in the obituary I'm currently writing for Sight & Sound.

For those who can't wait (or, in my case, who have deadlines!), and who understand either French or Italian, a tiny handful of shorts are already available on three Italian DVDs, available either singly or as a box set:

GOTO, ISLE OF LOVE (Goto, l'isola dell'amore) includes LES ASTRONAUTES (1960), ESCARGOT DE VENUS (1975) and SCHERZO INFERNAL (1984)


IMMORAL TALES (Racconti immorali) includes UNE COLLECTION PARTICULIERE (1973)

A box set is winging its way to me as I type this (currently somewhere between Bergamo and Lambeth, according to the delivery tracker...), and I should have it in my hands early next week - if anyone's interested, I'll post further details then. I'm really looking forward to seeing the shorts again - I caught screenings at the ICA in 1985 and the Everyman Cinema in the early 1990s, but those are pretty much the only opportunities I've had (annoyingly, I was out of the country when the Lux had their 2001 retrospective).

You might also be interested to know that the ultra-obscure LULU (1980) is out on DVD in France, though I suspect we're talking French-language only. Again, a copy is on its way to me, and I'll report back when it arrives. I'm a huge fan of the near-contemporary Dr Jekyll film, so I'll be particularly intrigued to see this one.

Posted by: Michael Brooke at February 11, 2006 6:07 AM

I've just sent my copy of my Boro obit to The Guardian. However, does anybody know whether he was still married to Ligia Banice and whether they had any children. I can't find out anything about her even on mdb. Age? Nationality? Italian?


Posted by: Ronald Bergan at February 12, 2006 2:50 AM

I'm trying to find this out myself!

I'd always assumed that she was a fellow Pole, though admittedly this isn't based on hard evidence. That said, there's a place in Poland called Branice, and Ligia is a name that pops up occasionally in Polish culture, notably as the protagonist of a novel by nationalist writer Henryk Sinkiewicz (more info here) in which she explicitly represents the Polish nation.

Further circumstantial evidence is provided by her participation in one of Borowczyk's early Polish shorts, Dom (1958), though I agree that this is far from clinching!

As for age, I'd guess that she was born in the mid-to-late 1930s - much later is unlikely (given Dom), and earlier is equally unlikely as she'd have been too old to play Glossia and Blanche convincingly in 1969-71.

I'm going to try to do some proper digging at the BFI tomorrow - so do please feel free to e-mail me if there's anything specific that you'd like me to look up.

I look forward to reading your obit - I've been checking all four of the UK broadsheets daily over the past week, so I'm glad at least one of them is doing something.

Posted by: Michael Brooke at February 12, 2006 5:41 AM


Assuming this entry in the Film Polski database is correct, she is indeed Polish and was born on 12 July 1932 in Krasnystaw.

Posted by: Michael Brooke at February 12, 2006 6:03 AM

Sorry, make that 7 December 1932 - I misread the date. This would mean she'd have been in her early thirties when she played the teenage Rosalie in the eponymous 1966 film, but I suppose that's just about plausible.

Posted by: Michael Brooke at February 12, 2006 6:06 AM

Thanks, Michael. I, therefore, presume she's still alive. From some of the obits I've read, there is nothing to suggest that he was still married to her at his death. If you do find out anything at the BFI tomorrow, I'd be grateful if you'd let me know. However, unless Sharon carks it today, it might be too late to add to my obit.

Posted by: Ronald Bergan at February 12, 2006 6:46 AM

No further info on Ligia Branice has come to light yet, but I found out in passing that several more shorts are included on the French DVD of La Bęte, namely: Les Astronautes (1959), Renaissance (1963), Les Jeux des anges (1964), Rosalie (1966), Une Collection particuličre (1973) and Scherzo infernal (1985).

Here's a first attempt at a DVD overview:

1960 - LES ASTRONAUTES (animated short)
- extra on La Bęte (Gaumont-Columbia TriStar, France, PAL) - no spoken dialogue
- extra on Goto, l'isola dell'amore (Columbia TriStar, Italy, PAL) - no spoken dialogue

1963 - RENAISSANCE (animated short)
- extra on La Bęte (Gaumont-Columbia TriStar, France, PAL) - no spoken dialogue

1964 - LES JEUX DES ANGES (animated short)
- extra on La Bęte (Gaumont-Columbia TriStar, France, PAL) - no spoken dialogue

1966 - ROSALIE (live-action short)
- extra on La Bęte (Gaumont-Columbia TriStar, France, PAL) - presumably unsubtitled French

- Cult Epics, US, NTSC (French with English subtitles)
- Gaumont-Columbia TriStar, France, PAL (French, no subtitles)
- Goto, l'isola dell'amore, Columbia TriStar, Italy, PAL (Italian or French with Italian subtitles)

1973 - UNE COLLECTION PARTICULIERE (live-action short)
- extra on La Bęte (Gaumont-Columbia TriStar, France, PAL)
- extra on Racconti immorali (Columbia TriStar, Italy, PAL)

- Anchor Bay, US, NTSC (French with English subtitles)
- Nouveaux Pictures, UK, PAL (French with English subtitles)
- Gaumont-Columbia TriStar, France, PAL (French, no subtitles)
- Racconti immorali, Columbia TriStar, Italy, PAL (Italian or French with Italian subtitles)

- Cult Epics, US, NTSC (English or French with English subtitles)
- Nouveaux Pictures, UK, PAL (French with English subtitles)
- Gaumont-Columbia TriStar, France, PAL (French, no subtitles)
- La bestia, Columbia TriStar, Italy, PAL (Italian or French with Italian subtitles)

- Nouveaux Pictures, UK, PAL (dubbed into English)

- extra on La bestia, Columbia TriStar, Italy, PAL (French with Italian subtitles)

1980 - LULU
- LCJ Editions, France, PAL (French, no subtitles)

- Millennium Storm, Italy, PAL (Italian, no subtitles)

1984 - SCHERZO INFERNAL (short)
- extra on La Bęte (Gaumont-Columbia TriStar, France, PAL)
- extra on Goto, l'isola dell'amore (Columbia TriStar, Italy, PAL)

- New Concorde, US, NTSC (English, no subtitles)
- Uca Catalogue, UK, PAL (English, no subtitles)
- Legocart, Italy, PAL (Italian, no subtitles)

- Cult Epics, US, NTSC (French with English subtitles)
- Pagan, UK, PAL (French with English subtitles)
- Regina della notte, Legocart, Italy, PAL (Italian, no subtitles)

I won't bother listing the shorts, but of the features these ones appear to be unavailable on DVD as yet:
BLANCHE (1971) - though this has had a British VHS release

I don't for one second believe this is complete, so do please feel free to post additions/corrections.

Posted by: Michael Brooke at February 12, 2006 7:55 AM

Sorry, completely forgot about this one:

- Nouveaux Pictures, UK, PAL (Polish with English subtitles)

Posted by: Michael Brooke at February 12, 2006 9:05 AM

This is a wealth of vital info. Many thanks to you both.

Posted by: David Hudson at February 12, 2006 9:57 AM

Has anybody seen Lulu? (Sound like a song.) I'm a great admirer of Pabst's Pandora's Box, Berg's Opera, and the Wedekind play. I'd love to see what Borowczyk did with it.

Posted by: Ronald Bergan at February 13, 2006 12:06 AM

Hopefully I'll be watching it later this week - the French DVD's on its way.

If the (presumed) lack of any English options isn't a problem, I'll happily lend it to you afterwards - I'm assuming you're based in the UK?

Posted by: Michael Brooke at February 13, 2006 1:58 AM

Dear Ronald,

Re: your obit. Ligia B is not only alive but was with her husband right up until the end. I hope that isn't too late!

Posted by: daniel bird at February 13, 2006 4:01 AM

Thanks for that, Daniel - even if it's too late for Ronald, I'll make sure I mention it in my piece.

I've already drafted a paragraph about her contribution to her husband's work, and was particularly delighted to find that Rosalie is available on DVD - I have seen it, but not for nearly 21 years!

Posted by: Michael Brooke at February 13, 2006 4:48 AM

Michael, thanks for the offer. Actually, I'm living in France so I'll try to get it here.

And Daniel, thanks so much for rescuing me at the last moment. As usual, the Graun has delayed running my piece, not being, in their eyes, a big enough name to rush into print. They did do an obit of mine on Henri Colpi pround with a huge picture from Marianbad, a poster for Une Aussi Long Absence and a photo of Colpi. However, they ran it some weeks after his death.

Posted by: Ronald Bergan at February 13, 2006 5:36 AM

Looks like Peter Benchley's death has pushed it further back in the queue!

Anyway, the Italian box set (Goto, Immoral Tales, The Beast, five shorts) turned up yesterday, and while I haven't had a chance to explore it in depth, I was very impressed with the presentation - a well-produced slipcase containing three slimline DVD cases plus a lavishly illustrated book complete with essays and interviews.

DVD transfers appear to be top-notch (all three features are anamorphic 1.66:1 and sourced from what look like excellent prints - I've only ever seen Goto in ancient 16mm copies before, so this was a particular revelation) and the shorts were fascinating, particularly Une collection particuličre (which I've wanted to see for literally decades), Escargot de Venus (a portrait of artist Bona Tibertelli De Pisis, wife of regular Borowczyk collaborator Andre Pieyre de Mandiargues, with particular attention paid to her paintings fusing snails and human copulation), and the wonderfully orgiastic Scherzo Infernal.

There are two major drawbacks, both linguistic: firstly, unless you understand French or Italian (preferably the latter, given the monolingual book), you're out of luck. Secondly, if you select the original French as a language option, you get forced Italian subtitles - my Toshiba DVD player has a workaround for turning off forced subs, but I'm stuck with them on my laptop.

Posted by: Michael Brooke at February 13, 2006 11:36 PM

There's also a couple of Borowczyk DVDs out in Japan from Trash Mountain Video, including the following:

Art of Love (English Audio, Optional Japanese subtitles, and unfortunately some sort of censorship over genitals) This one's available from xploitedcinema.com

Goto, Island of Love (unsure of audio/subs)

Behind Convent Walls (once again...)

and a boxset of the above titles:

Walerian Borowczyk Kantoku Sakuhin Shu - Kakumei Eroticism DVD Box

and from Pioneer in Japan:

Immoral Women (once again, no idea about audio or sub options)

La Marge (I believe this is in French with Japanese subs, but don't quote me)

Also, where'd you order the Italian Box set from? I'd love to pick that up as Borowczyk's one of my favorites, and I'm a sucker for nice packaging ;)

Posted by: Mike Kitchell at February 14, 2006 10:26 AM

Well I found the Italian boxset, but can't track down Lulu anywhere... where's it coming from?

Posted by: Mike Kitchell at February 14, 2006 10:34 AM

I got the Italian box from DVD.it, who couldn't have been more efficient. I've now watched Goto in full, and am happy to confirm that the transfer is excellent - a vast improvement over anything I've seen before - and it also includes the colour sequences.

Arte's French disc of La Bęte turned up today with its half-dozen shorts. 'Rosalie' isn't in the best shape but the others all stand up well - though there are no subtitles whatsoever (not even French).

I ordered Lulu from Alapage, but it hasn't been shipped yet: the current status is "en commande chez le fournisseur", which essentially translates as "you're unlikely to get this before your deadline next Monday".

Posted by: Michael Brooke at February 14, 2006 2:56 PM

Terrible news that the great Borowczyk has gone!
Don't think anyone has mentioned that Ligia was the girl in Chris Markers La Jetee...credited as Ligia Borowczyk.

Posted by: Chris Newby at February 18, 2006 4:32 AM

It is not surprising (or is it?) that not one daily in England or the USA, as far as I'm aware, has yet carried an obit of Borowczyk. I still await mine in the Graun. However, I see that Pedro Gonzales Gonzales has got two big ones in both the NY and L.A. Times. He was so good they named him twice.

Posted by: Ronald Bergan at February 18, 2006 6:25 AM

Sadly, not surprising.Especially when you consider that as far as I know, there have been only two retros of his work in London in the last 20 yrs..the one at the ICA and the Lux.Why has there never been one at the NFT.Shame on them...And if you didn't live in london how would you ever come across the Dr
Jekyll film for instance...

Posted by: Chris Newby at February 18, 2006 10:35 AM

And if you didn't live in london how would you ever come across the Dr Jekyll film for instance...

Even if you did, it wasn't that easy - it originally opened in one London cinema in early summer 1984 for just one week with no press screenings. My interest was piqued by an intriguing Time Out review on the Tuesday following its Friday opening, and on the Thursday Nigel Andrews of the Financial Times caught up with it and published a flat-out rave...

...which only just appeared in time because that was the last day the film played. Fortunately, I managed to catch it, and as first Borowczyks go, that was a pretty good one!

The uncut version then popped up a year or so later at the ICA - I missed it (to this day I've never seen the full version: my old VTC VHS copy seems to be more or less identical to what I saw in the cinema), but did manage to see just about everything else in the accompanying retrospective, including many of the shorts. But between that and the Lux season in 2001 (i.e. 14 years) that was pretty much it as far as big-screen opportunities to catch anything other than the much-reissued 'La Bęte' were concerned, barring a few sporadic double and triple bills at places like the Scala and Everyman.

I've no idea what the situation was outside London - probably pretty barren (and for a great many years 'Immoral Tales' and 'La Bęte' could only play legally in London, as they had GLC as opposed to BBFC X certificates).

Posted by: Michael Brooke at February 19, 2006 3:40 PM

Dear Ronald Bergan,
It's probably too late, but I knew Borowczyk quite well until he became a hermit ten years ago and could probably fill you in on some of the info you want. My phone number is: 0033471499278.
A bientôt perhaps.
Peter Graham

Posted by: peter graham at February 21, 2006 1:27 AM

I saw the Dr Jekyll film at that first screening, and later came across Three Immoral Women at the same Picadilly venue..I seem to remember having to go down a tunnel to it...or I could be dreaming.I kept wondering what the regulars thought of it.The version of the film shown at the ICA, though uncut,I still wasn't sure it was a definitive version.The shock moments were intact, mostly of Mr Hyde and his lethal weapon and there was a longer snatch(Sorry)of the naked woman hanging from a hook...I did wonder if that image in particular was Borowcyks inclusion as some of his later films like the Art of Love had producer inteference...The Art of Love has some ludicrous inserts of a roman orgy straight out of Tinto Brasso...Also his shock effects if I can call them that tended to be rapid fire..coming from his animated films like Madame Kabal...It would be great if the cult epics folk could find a good version and scrape off the dubbing, varnish thats spoils many a good pic...I have heard though the film in tied up in legal red tape and that the producer is in prison...Someone needs to write a book about him...He is a history of european art film in a nutshell and encompasses both french and polish cinema...

Posted by: Chris Newby at February 21, 2006 8:48 AM

I saw the Dr Jekyll film at that first screening, and later came across Three Immoral Women at the same Picadilly venue..I seem to remember having to go down a tunnel to it...or I could be dreaming.I kept wondering what the regulars thought of it.

Quote from my Sight & Sound piece:

"Even those prepared to risk a trip to what was likely to be a distinctly specialist Soho venue would have seen his films battered and bruised after losing a three-round fight with distributor, censor and English dubbing studio."

I heard similar rumours about Dr Jekyll - there was a major bust-up between Borowczyk and the producer(s) at the time it was made, and things seem to have got steadily worse since then. I tried to track down a copy when I was booking films for the Everyman Cinema in the early-to-mid 1990s but it seemed to have vanished.

As for a book, this page opens with a promising announcement...

Posted by: Michael Brooke at February 22, 2006 12:39 AM

Thanks, Peter, I'll try and call you this afternoon. Maybe the Graun's delay is a blessing in disguise.

Posted by: Ronald Bergan at February 22, 2006 3:07 AM

Well that does look promising...and taking the later work seriously which is good..Also Daniel Bird, said he was doing one...Wd also make a good documentary.I know Kieth Griffith(Brothers Quay)interviewed him in the 90"s for a possible documentary but Channel 4 wouldn't stump up any money for it...Amazingly!
So did ANY obit appear in the UK?

Posted by: Chris Newby at February 22, 2006 4:54 AM

I haven't seen one yet, and I've been checking the broadsheets daily. I'm really surprised neither the Guardian nor the Independent have printed one yet, though if Ronald's piece is going to benefit from the delay that's all to the good.

And unless there's an unforeseen production error, there'll definitely be one in the next Sight & Sound, which should be out in mid-March. In this case it couldn't have appeared any earlier, as his death was announced when the current issue was already at the printers.

Totally agree about him making a good subject for a documentary, and Keith would be just the man for it: I recently caught up with his 1984 Jan Svankmajer programme (for Channel 4's 'Visions' slot), which was astonishingly comprehensive given that Svankmajer was to all intents and purposes totally unknown back then (the Quay short of the same name compiles animated inserts which were originally fleshed out with interviews and clips from Svankmajer films). But C4 were a lot more adventurous back then...

Incidentally, you're not the Chris Newby of 'Relax'/'Anchoress'/'Madagascar Skin' fame, are you?

Posted by: Michael Brooke at February 22, 2006 10:30 AM

Yes I am...though not sure about the fame..and as you"ve probably gathered a long time enthusiast of Borowczyk...I was always hoping he might suddenly emerge with something again...but I thought it very interesting that in the short interview on the recent La Bete release, he talked of his work on the film, in the third person...as if he was now somebody completely seperate...I wonder what he did in the hermit years...I can't imagine someone so creative giving up and not producing something...be it other forms of artwork...Who knows....Last night I watched the Madam Kabal film...what an astonishing piece of graphic art it is...

Posted by: Chris Newby at February 22, 2006 5:40 PM

Well, you're renowned enough for me to feel guilty about not having got round to covering your work on the BFI's Screenonline website - which I'll try to remedy a.s.a.p.

(There's really no excuse, since the usual reason of having to clear rights and track down materials obviously doesn't apply to films that were produced by the BFI in the first place!)

Getting back on topic, Ronald Bergan's Borowczyk obituary was finally published today.

Posted by: Michael Brooke at February 23, 2006 5:11 AM

Screenonline...that would be nice..thank-you..
And a nice obit for Borowczyk it is..At last!

Posted by: Chris Newby at February 23, 2006 6:40 AM

The Independent finally got round to running a Borowczyk obituary today.

Note that this will probably be hidden behind their "premium content" subscription wall in a few days' time (possibly as early as tomorrow?), but it's free for the moment.

Posted by: Michael Brooke at February 28, 2006 2:44 AM

I have just heard about Borowczyk's death, and as a huge fan of his work I am shocked and somewhat depressed. A shame that he died as a more-or-less neglected, unappreciated talent - although there was a little upturn perhaps in the last few years, with the Lux retrospective and several of his films released in various forms. But it's still sad, though hardly surprising, to think that a creator of live-action and animated masterpieces can die and merit only two broadsheet obituaries in the UK. Borowczyk was a genius and remained a genius, suffering in his later works from the artistic constraints of the exploitation genre, from crass intervention by producers and distributors, and in general from an absence of conducive working methods. When he was working with complete creative control, he produced astonishing, provocative works of art such as Goto, Blanche, La Bete and Story of Sin. Those first two features especially are, I believe, among the greatest films ever made. The originality of Goto, and the sense of period in Blanche, are unrivalled. In the case of his animated work, he helped change the face of animation completely, and was among the most innovative animators to come from Eastern Europe, which is high praise indeed. His Polish shorts also were among the first filmic works to announce interesting new trends within Polish film, and a break with the sterile conventions of the past.

Boro will be much missed in this household at least.

Posted by: Jon Owen at February 28, 2006 5:56 AM

I am so sad to hear of Boro's passing...he was a wonderful filmmaker, I still remember when I saw RENAISSANCE on a PBS film series in the 1970's. The film has always stayed with me, and I have searched out all the information I could find on him since then. I truly loved his films, and the world is a bit more drab without him. He will be dearly missed.

Posted by: liz bradford at March 1, 2006 8:35 AM

I worked with Boro at a small animation studio in Paris where I was creative director. The year was 1961/
He spoke no French and no English and would storybo ard when he conversed. He had made Dome and was working with us on Renaissance. The name of the studio was "Les Cineastes Associes". He lived in a small apartment in Paris with his starkly beautiful wife.
The other animators at our studio were Frank Smith (Mr. MaGoo) Jacqus Vausseur and Michelle Altermat. I would be interested in hearing from anyone who remembers Les Cineastes Associes

Posted by: Dick Roberts at March 5, 2006 4:47 PM

I spoke Dominique Duverge, who went on to form Panteleon Films with Borowczyk. I am very interested in locating the TV films Borowczyk made for Les Cineastes - if anyone can possibly help, please conact me at dtbird1@hotmail.com
thanks daniel

Posted by: daniel bird at March 7, 2006 3:42 AM

I am a painter, English living in France, and saw most of Borowczyk's films when they first appeared in London...I am a great admirer, and have been looking for a DVD of Heroines of Evil, only succeeded in getting a rather bad cassette. On Annecy site there was a service about a big exhibition of his paintings, what an amazing talent. Did he spend his last years in Annecy?

Posted by: david russell at March 12, 2006 12:32 AM

Borowczyk spent his last years in Le Vesinet, just outside of Paris. Naturally, he always had a good relationship with Annecy Festival. I have seen cells from unmade/unfinished animations, not to mention his Polish posters, which are just staggering. The last artworks (I think) he created were for his little book of fiction, in 1992. I understand there is a Greek DVD of Heronies, but I haven't seen it. I hope to put together a modest exhibition of artworks for a 'tribute' to Borowczyk at Norwich Animation Festival in October.

Posted by: daniel bird at March 12, 2006 5:47 AM

Heroines du Mal...
there is a dvd from Pioneer.
My copy is french language ,no english subs...and it is a reasonable transfer except for the occasional bizzare spot of censorship...Try Ebay..if you can get past the awful rip-offs

Posted by: Chris Newby at March 13, 2006 10:14 AM

a question for Michael Brooke:
when you ordered Lulu from alapage, how much was the shipping to the US?

also, I'm having a little trouble working through the page, as my french isn't what it once was... i can't really figure out how to put my address in the right way.

Posted by: Mike Kitchell at March 24, 2006 7:43 PM